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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 763909.


Project Lifetime: 1 April 2018 to 30 September 2022.


Coordinator: DIFFER.




Concept and Approach

Aviation is a striking example of a sector that is difficult to decarbonise, because batteries, hydrogen and hybrid combinations are limited by their low energy density, whilst bio-fuel is limited by the fuel vs. food and flora trilemma. The KEROGREEN project offers an innovative third way by producing green kerosene, synthesised from air and water, powered by renewable electricity (wind, waves, solar) and recapturing the carbon emitted from the atmosphere, creating a closed carbon fuel cycle consistent with the circular economy principle.

An important advantage of green kerosene as an aviation fuel is that existing infrastructure for storage, transport, filling of aircraft and, more importantly, jet engine technology can be kept unchanged. Furthermore, synthetic green kerosene, emits no sulphur and less soot, whilst NOx emission are minimised, hence emissions also meet ever tighter ait pollution standards. The KEROGREEN technology is modular, scalable and well suited to small-scale distributed production plants sited in remote areas, for example an off-shore wind turbine park or a desert solar farm.

The KEROGREEN conversion route is based on plasma driven dissociation of air captured CO2, solid oxide membrane oxygen separation of and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) kerosene synthesis. Synergy between plasma activated species and novel perovskite electrodes of the oxygen separator raise CO productivity and energy efficiency. CO2 emitted upon fuel usage is recirculated as feedstock to the process by direct air capture. The technology relies on inexpensive existing infrastructure for storage, transport and distribution.



The plasma serves to split CO2 into CO and O2 at high conversion ratio by employing microwave technology. The technology is scalable to the MW range, does not use scarce materials and instantly switches on and off with the flick of a switch, responding well to the intermittent nature of renewable electricity.

The oxygen separator employs high temperature oxygen conducting membranes that selectively transport the oxygen out of the mixed gas stream. Plasmolysis combined with electrochemical oxygen transport forms the innovative part of the project.

The emerging CO/CO2 mixture is purified to CO by a Pressure Swing Adsorption unit.

Part of the CO stream is diverted to a Water Gas Shift reactor to produce H2 in the right quantity.

H2 thus formed is mixed with the remaining CO stream, forming synthesis- or syngas.

Syngas serves as the starting point for kerosene synthesis based on the Fischer-Tropsch reaction.  

The range of hydrocarbons created is subsequently upgraded in liquid kerosene of ASTM aviation standard.